A current account crisis has intensified after the West fired its sanctions bazooka at Russia as punishment for its invasion of Ukraine. Rolling blackouts and a state of emergency are frightening away remaining tourists, a crucial source of foreign exchange. Food inflation hit an eye-watering 30.2% in March. The currency’s 40% depreciation against the US dollar in one month, including a central bank managed devaluation, is blowing out leverage ratios: Public debt estimated by the International Monetary Fund at 120% of GDP is perhaps some 40 percentage points more than might be deemed sustainable, guesses Citi.
A worsening crisis mutes the impact of disjointed financial lifelines, including a $1.5 billion currency swap from China in December and rice and diesel shipments from India. The IMF notes that policies required to reduce debt to sustainable levels are neither economically nor politically feasible. Hence, Sri Lanka’s $1 billion bond maturing in July trades at 67 cents on the US dollar, compared to about 74 cents at the start of February. Haircuts will stretch from China to Wall Street, where market borrowings accounted for 47% of Sri Lanka’s foreign government debt as of April last year.
It’s a reminder of the political implications of high prices. Prior to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, few Asian countries had consumer inflation in double digits. The standouts were Sri Lanka and Pakistan, whose Prime Minister Imran Khan on Sunday dodged a no-confidence vote and called fresh elections. Poorer countries are more vulnerable to surging global food prices because their populations spend more on food than discretionary items. But pandemic dislocations to supply chains and trade meant advanced economies overall were facing a jump in prices three times bigger than emerging markets between 2019 to 2022, per IMF estimates in January.
Whether countries rush to deal with surging prices with tax cuts, or ramping up subsidies, Sri Lanka’s speedy unravelling offers a warning of the political risks of complacency.
– Multiple members of Sri Lanka’s cabinet offered to resign, multiple media outlets reported on April 4 adding that the resignations included neither Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa nor his brother, President Gotabaya Rajapaksa. The prime minister’s son, Namal Rajapaksa, minister for youth and sports, confirmed his resignation with immediate effect on Twitter.
– “We gave resignations to the prime minister saying we are willing to leave at any time,” Education Minister Dinesh Gunawardena told reporters in Colombo, Bloomberg reported on April 4.
– On April 3 protesters in Colombo, Sri Lanka’s largest city, held numerous small, peaceful demonstrations about the severe economic crisis, defying a nationwide curfew. Meanwhile, police used tear gas to disperse student protesters in the central city of Kandy. The president declared a state of emergency on April 1 as the island grapples with rising prices, shortages of essential goods and rolling power cuts.
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